Because this training program is built on the assumption that progress in the ability to adequately manage chronic pain can only be achieved through a bi-directional flow of information between the "bench" and the "bedside", access to the "bedside" is an integral component of the training program. This will be achieved in several important ways. First, as noted above, at least one clinician will serve as a member of each pre- and post-doctoral trainee mentoring committee. Second, trainees will be encouraged to develop research projects that are not only multidisciplinary, but also as clinically relevant as possible. This will most appropriately influence the choice of model system, but may impact other aspects of research design and analysis. Third, trainees will be exposed to the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of pain patients through a two part course - Pain Perspectives. This offering, also newly organized for this training program, will provide to trainees the opportunity to shadow pain physicians as they interview, diagnose and manage chronic pain patients within the Pain Medicine Program, Department of Anesthesiology, and other clinical settings Pain Perspectives will be offered in two segments, which include an initial exposure to the diagnosis and treatment of the wide range of pain patients typically seen by Pain Medicine Program and other physicians. This will occur during the first year of appointment in the training program and will generally be scheduled toward the end of the didactic course Mechanisms and Clinical Presentation of Pain, in which Pain Medicine Program fellows participate and also present case studies in class for discussion. The second segment of the course will involve spending additional blocks of time with a clinician treating pain patients/patient-related issues. Where possible, this will involve the clinical member of the trainee's mentoring committee and pain patients relevant to the trainee's research.